Science Pseudoscience & Technology
Scientific Methods
Science Skills
Science Process
Tech Design
Data & Measurement

Quia Practice Quiz:

Take every day before sleeping!

Vocabulary Review Activities: (play them early and often!)


BrainPop Animations and Practice Quizes

Science Skills Handbook 1999 -Graphing
Appendix: Pages 202-214:

What Is Science 1994

Measurement with theMetric System 1994: Chapter 2 Sections 1 & 2 Pages 38-61

Mathematics In Science Summary & Adapted Reading Worksheet

Graphs In Science Summary
& Adapted Reading Worksheet

Scientists on the Cutting Edge Booklet

Process Skills Packet

Labs & Videos

Penny Observation
Pre-Lab Worksheet Link
Pre-Lab Worksheet Link
Hooda Math
Graphing Gala Coordinate Game

Graphing Interactive Links
BBC Bitesize Math
Mean, Median, Mode, Range
Frequency Diagrams
Tables and Lists

StudyJams Double Line Graphs

Practice Sheet

Volcanic Flow Graph Analysis

Graphing with Smart PowerPoint / Excel Tools

Measure the Golden Center
and other Quantitative Activities
NCTM Illuminations
SAS Curriculum Pathways
Study Jams Animations and Practice Gizmos
Nye Measurement Video
Measurement Quiz
IXL Math
IXL Math

Essential Vocabulary & Concepts
Picture Core Knowledge or Concept

Quantitative observations measure using numbers.

Scatter Plot with Line of Best Fit
Data Spread and Range measures how much variability is in a data set

Spread is how much the data varies in value
Range = highest value - lowest value. i.e. for the set {35, 44, 73, 85} 85-35 = 50

Range is often used to set up the scale of a graph using these values :
maxima : the highest value
minima : the lowest value

Frequency Distribution - another way to look at spread

related to
  • accuracy: How "correct" or close to target the values are.
  • precision: how consistent the data is (close in value and predictable,) but not necessarily "correct."
Measures of Central Tendency

Mean - (most often used in data analysis) the sum of the values divided by the number of values. i.e. for the set {1,2,3,4,5} (1+2+3+4+5) / 5 = 15 / 5 = 3 is the average
Median - the middle value in an ordered set i.e. in the set {1,2,3,4,5}, 3 is the middle value
Mode - the most frequent value in a data set. i.e. in the set {1,1,1,2,2,3}, 1 occurs most often.
 Variables:  The three types are:
  1. Independent variable: the one thing you change to see if it has an effect on the dependent variable that you will measure
  2. Dependent variable: the one thing that is observed (measured) and recorded as data to check for change as the outcome
  3. Controlled variables: the things that stay the same so they don't have an effect on the outcome.

Click on image
Scatterplots and Line Graphs (2-dimensions) These coordinate plane graphs show pairs of data representing the Independent variable on the x-axis and the dependent variable on the y-axis
  • Scatterplot: points (not connected) show correlation or cause and effect between independent and dependent variables.
    •  May not have a 1-to-1 relationship in the data or other relationship such as change over time.
    • May or may not show a trend that fits a line or curve.
  • Line Graph: points are connected to show change in dependent variable as independent variable is changed.
    •  Shows a 1-to-1 relationship in the data.
  • Double Line Graph: shows multiple data sets (lines) on the same graph to compare data.
Parts of a graph
  • Title given as y versus x     i.e. Temperature over Time
  • x-axis is always the independent variable
  • y-axis is always the dependent variable
  • labels on the axes show the name of the variable and the units of measurement i.e. distance in meters
  • points - write the values on the graph for clarity and comparison, especially between lines
  • origin : where the axes cross, does not have to be 0,0 but should be based on the range of your data and how you want to present it.
Bar Graphs These coordinate plane graphs show categorized data as bars for comparison. May be horizontal or vertical.
  • Categories Axis: on the axis at the base of the bar (usually the 'x' axis). i.e. month, color, type
    • May not have a 1-to-1 relationship in the data.
    • May not show relationship between categories
    • Use color or patterns to show differences
    • label each category and name the axis
  • Values Axis: axis shows scale. Write number on the top of each bar for clarity and comparison.
    • Often scaled with origin at 0 to show magnitude.
    • label the axis with the name of the measure and scale
  • Double Bar Graph: shows multiple data sets on the same graph to compare data. i.e. year-to-year, class-to-class, etc
  • Histogram: shows frequency of value categories i.e. number of students at each shoe size
  • Title given as Values  versus Categories     i.e. Students Favorite Flavors
Pie Charts or Circle Graphs show categorized data as arc sections (slices from the center) for comparison to the whole.
  • Scale: divide the circumference to appropriate part-to-whole divisions - fractions, percents, etc
  • Categories: each section sized to the appropriate part-to-whole scale - fraction, percent, etc.
    • Must be related to 100% or whole..
    • Label each category slice with the name and value
    • Use colors or patterns to show differences
  • Title given as Values  versus Categories     i.e. Students Favorite Flavors
Data Tables show data as numbers, often organized to show relationships (x,y pairs, etc.) often ordered by independent variable.
  • headings: label columns and/or rows with name of data and units
Data Trends
  • Linear
  • non-linear
  • increasing
  • decreasing
  • repeating cycle
  • example names in picture to left

Line of Best Fit - A mathematical process (usually with Excel) to find a line that fits the data. Used to find a correlation between independent and dependent values.


metric system
Metric System (International System of Units, SI) a system of measurement based on the number 10.
  •   A meter is the unit used to measure length, or the distance between two points.
  •   A liter is the unit used to measure the volume of a liquid or the amount of space it takes up. 
  •   A gram is used to measure the amount of matter in an object. 
  •   Degrees Celsius measure temperature.

Other Graphs
Box and Whisker
Stem and Leaf