Unit 5 Assignments
    Science Skills
Gravity in Space
 Bundle 5 How can objects interact at a distance?
MS-PS2-4 Evidence Statement
MS-PS2-4. Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.

[Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence for arguments could include data generated from simulations or digital tools; and charts displaying mass, strength of interaction, distance from the Sun, and orbital periods of objects within the solar system.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include Newton’s Law of Gravitation or Kepler’s Laws.]
MS-ESS1-2  Evidence Statement
Develop and use a model to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system.
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis for the model is on gravity as the force that holds together the solar system and Milky Way galaxy and controls orbital motions within them. Examples of models can be physical (such as the analogy of distance along a football field or computer visualizations of elliptical orbits) or conceptual (such as mathematical proportions relative to the size of familiar objects such as students' school or state).] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include Kepler’s Laws of orbital motion or the apparent retrograde motion of the planets as viewed from Earth.]
MS-ESS1-3  Evidence Statement
Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system.
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the analysis of data from Earth-based instruments, space-based telescopes, and spacecraft to determine similarities and differences among solar system objects. Examples of scale properties include the sizes of an object’s layers (such as crust and atmosphere), surface features (such as volcanoes), and orbital radius. Examples of data include statistical information, drawings and photographs, and models.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include recalling facts about properties of the planets and other solar system bodies.]
Additionally, these ideas about forces that act at a distance can be connected to the concept that gravitational forces are always attractive; there is a gravitational force between any two masses, but it is very small except when one or both of the objects have large mass—e.g., Earth and the sun (PS2.B as in MS-PS2-4). Then, gravitational forces connect to the concepts that the solar system consists of the sun and a collection of objects, including planets, their moons, and asteroids that are held in orbit around the sun by its gravitational pull on them (ESS1.B as in MS-ESS1-3 and MS-ESS1-2) and this model of the solar system can explain eclipses of the sun and the moon. Earth’s spin axis is fixed in direction over the short-term but tilted relative to its orbit around the sun. The seasons are a result of that tilt and are caused by the differential intensity of sunlight on different areas of Earth across the year (ESS1.B as in MS-ESS1-1).

Quia Quiz: Rock Cycle & (M)

Take every day before sleeping!

Vocabulary Review Activities

 BrainPop Animations and Practice QuizesBrainPop

PearsonPPT-ThumbLunar Cycle Slideshow

Vocabulary - Glossary

Gravity & Motion: Chapter 1 Section 2: Pages 16-19:

The Solar System Chapter 2 Pages 48-91:

Star Systems, GalaxiesChapter 3 Section 4  Pages 117-120:

Universe & Formation of Solar System Chapter 3 Section 5  Pages 121-124:

Dwarf Planets Artcle & Reading Questions - Espanol

Science Skills Handbook
Appendix: Pages 202-214:
Process Skills Packet

Labs & Videos
Moon and Gravity
Gravity and Orbits

PhET Graded Assignment ESS1-2
Gravity in Space Simulation

write up an experiment
Forces in 1 Dimension
Forces of Gravity

write up an experiment
Screenshot of the simulation My Solar System
My Solar System

My Solar System - Practice

Solar System
Solar System Explorer

Comparing Earth And Venus

graded- PE-ESS1-3 Solar System- Comparing Data OneNote,   pdf, or PowerPoint

Forces and Motion
Gizmos- Galileo's Tower Lab
Freefall, Fluid Friction, and Gravity


write up an experiment
NASA Starchild
NASA.Gov Starchild

Space Place at Nasa.Gov

Home Oreo Moon Activity
Nasa Solar System Page
Nasa Solar System Page

informational page
Math In Our Solar System


Graphing and calculating the relationships of Gravity.
Planet Facts Search -Data

Use the NASA Web Pages to explore your planet
95 Worlds and Counting
and Viewing Guide 
Youtube The Year Of Pluto - Kuiper Belt Objects, Dwarf Planets & Outer Planetary Moons
YoutubeNASA New Horizons Images - Extreme Close-Ups

Colorful Landing NASA Simulation
Bill Nye Outer Space
Espanol and quiz

Bill Nye Planets
Espanol and quiz

Bill Nye Sun
Espanol and quiz

Graph - Number of Moons versus planet's ???? - pick a value to graph as the x-axis Table

Planet Moon Table

Nye Gravity


Tik Liem Home Activities

Gravity Sheet Lab

Study Jams
  1. Inner Planets
  2. Outer Planets
  3. The Moon


Discrepant Event




New situations/applications

project to share
Reading & Math Work

Math and DataMath Logo
Projects by Learning Style and Media Type
Silver Sensing THinking Hand Sensing-Thinking (Mastery)
  1. Create a diagram that shows the rock cycle and label its parts.
Silver Sensing Feeling Heart Sensing-Feeling (Interpersonal)
A time when you...
  1. Show how __________________are used by  humans.
Intuitive Thinking-Head Intuitive-Thinking (Understanding)
Playing with facts

  1. Create a diagram that compares or contrasts different parts of the rock cycle.
Silver Intuitive Feeling Intuitive-Feeling (Self-Expressive)
Creating new possibiliteis

  1. Show how ___________.

  1. Make a video or animation of atoms  (see options above.) Narrate, subtitle, or text page to show this week's concepts.

  1. Create a PowerPoint, ToonDoo, or other graphic that shows one of the projects above.

garagebandPodcast Audio

  1. Make a radio show, podcast, or song about the elements (see options above.) Narrate, subtitle, or text page to show this week's concepts.
ArtistMusicianLive Presentation Project

  1. Make a poster, play, song or cartoon showing your understanding of the elements in its many forms.
Essential Vocabulary & Concepts
Picture CCore Knowledge or Concept
Graavity Well
The law of universal gravitation states that the force of gravity acts between all objects (matter) in the universe (everything, everywhere).

Gravity is the force that pulls objects towards more massive things (like Earth).

Gravity's strength varies by
  1. Distance: closer is stronger
  2. Mass: more mass has more gravity.
OOn Earth's surface, things in freefall accelerate 9.8 m/s/s unless it is slowed by air resistance.
Map of Solar System Planets
Four rocky inner planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
Four outer gas giant planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Planets must meet three criteria:
  1. Must not orbit anything except the sun (Pluto orbits its sister moon Charon.)
  2. Must be big enough to have become round in shape (caused by massive gravity.)
  3. Must have cleared its orbit (no asteroids.)

Dwarf Planets: Pluto (Kuiper belt) & Ceres (asteroid belt)

  1. Must not orbit anything except the sun (Pluto orbits its sister moon Charon.)
  2. Must be big enough to have become round in shape (caused by massive gravity.)
  3. Has not cleared its orbit (no asteroids or KBOs.)
  4. is not a satellite (moon)
ceres Inner Solar System: Asteroid Belt and Other Objects
  • Dwarf Planets - Ceres
  • 160+ moons large satellites that orbit the planets or dwarf planets (Titan, Phobos, Io, Triton, Europa)
  • Asteroids - asteroid belt: huge rocky & metallic objects between Mars and Jupiter
  • Meteoroids (meteorites, meteors) smaller objects, generally ice, rock, and metal
ceres Outer Solar System: Kuiper Belt Objects and Oort Cloud Objects
  • Dwarf Planets - KBOs (Pluto, Eris)
  • moons large satellites that orbit the dwarf planets (Charon, Hydra, Dysnomia)
  • Comets: made of dust and ices that pass close to the sun and back out to the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud
  • Kuiper Belt Objects: Objects past Neptune in the Kuiper Belt- thousands of icy worlds (Pluto, Eris, Haumea, and Makemake)- some are outside of the plane of planetary orbits
  • Oort Cloud Objects beyond the Kuiper belt (Sedna) - some are outside of the plane of planetary orbits
Moon Earth's Moon:  was likely formed from the debris thrown out when another planet collided with Earth long ago.
  •  It is about 3,476 kilometers in diameter, has low gravity, no breathable atmosphere, and is covered in craters from being hit by asteroids, meteoroids, and other objects.
Expanding Universe The Universe: everything - all of space, matter, and energy.

It is getting bigger, faster, and faster as all the galaxies race away from the center in all directions spreading farther and farther apart.

We do not know what energy is causing this- it is called dark energy. Gravity is not pulling the universe together or slowing down the expansion.

The Universe is not revolving or spinning like galaxies or star systems like our solar system does.

We can not detect a large portion of the matter in the universe - it is called dark matter.
Moon Milky Way Galaxy: 
One of billions of flat rotating clusters of star systems (galaxies) in the universe that are speeding away from the center of the universe.
  • Probably a super-masssive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, pulling all of the other stars around.
    • Gravity warps space to cause the smaller star systems to revolve around the more massive gravity field of the center of the galaxy (the same way the massive sun's gravity warps space to pull the smaller planets etc. around it.)
  • Our solar system is in an outer spiral arm revolving around the center of the milky way at 240 kilometers each second.
  • We are about 250,000,000,000,000,000 kilometers from the center of the Milky Way Galaxy
  • ]
  • Contains hundreds of billions of stars and star systems
Sun Subsurface Sun:  is the heart of the solar system and is 99.8% of its mass. Its burning atmosphere is in the millions of degrees Celsius.