Portal Learning Check 6th Grade Science Essential Vocabulary & ConceptsLearning checks are given weekly to measure student growth on essential concepts and vocabulary throughout the year.These are not graded, students are to track their own scores in their notebooks in order to see growth over time.It is expected that students will see low scores that become higher scores over time.Students should continue to refer to this page, take the practice learning check often, and play all of the quia games for all units over the year.
 Picture Core Knowledge or Concept Science is the process of explaining the natural world. Observing is using your senses to gather information about the world. Qualitative observations describe using words, diagrams, or models. Quantitative observations measure using numbers. Inferring is making sense of your observation. Predicting is making an inference about a future event Models help people understand things that they cannot observe directly. Communicating is the process of sharing ideas and information with other people. Metric System (International System of Units, SI) a system of measurement based on the number 10.   A meter is the unit used to measure length, or the distance between two points.   A liter is the unit used to measure the volume of a liquid or the amount of space it takes up.    A gram is used to measure the amount of matter in an object.    Degrees Celsius measure temperature.
 Picture Core Knowledge or Concept Scientific Method a system for investigating the universe.. Problem: Always asks a question.  The problem guides the experiment Background Research: Find out what we already know about the problem, including our own personal knowledge and research on the topic. Hypothesis: A testable statement that “answers” the problem.  This is usually written in an “if, then” format.  It is based on the background research. Experimental Design: Describes how the experiment will be performed.  It     is written in a list format and contains the following sections: A. Variables:  The three types are: Experimental / Manipulated / Independent: the one you change Measured / Responding / Dependent: the one that is observed data Controlled: the ones that stay the same B: Procedures: a numbered list of exactly what you will be doing. C.  Materials: a numbered list of exactly what you will be using. D: Trials: how many times you run an experiment. The results section is the data from the experiment. It can be a table, graph, or chart. An analysis is the explanation of the data of an experiment. A conclusion summarizes the experiment referring to the hypothesis and states how the experiment may be changed. The Experimenting or experimentation is a method of testing scientific ideas. The PseudoScience is not science. It does not follow all of the steps of the scientific method. It is often used to trick people. The Technology is the creation of goods and services for human use. It uses a method called theDesign  Cycle.
 Picture Core Knowledge or Concept An object is in motion when its distance from a reference point changes. Average  speed is: total distance in a given or total, time.  (Like from the start to finish line.) (The opposite is instantaneous speed, speed at a given moment in time like on a roller coaster.) Speed does not give a direction travelled.  (Speed = Distance Time) Velocity is speed in a given direction. Vectors or rays are arrows that can show motion and forces.
 Picture Core Knowledge or Concept Acceleration is the rate (how fast) at which velocity changes  speeding up (faster if Speedend - Speedstart is positive) slowing down or deceleration (slower if Speedend - Speedstart is negative) turning (direction) Opposite: Constant velocity is when speed and direction do not change. An accelerometer measures changes in acceleration or jerk. Electronic acelerometers are used in cars to set off airbags and in runners' speedometers. Vectors or rays are arrows that can show velocity and acceleration. The formula for acceleration is (final speed - initial speed) / time. or ( Speedend - Speedstart ) / time Change in speed is (Speedend - Speedstart) Scientist Galileo Galilei experimented with gravity by dropping things from a tower, rolling things down ramps, and observing the planets and moons of the solar system.
 Picture Core Knowledge or Concept A force is a push or a pull. Net force is the sum of forces acting on an object. balanced forces: are equal and opposite. They do not cause motion unbalanced forces: are not equal. They can cause things to move. Force arrows show the magnitude and direction of a force. The width or length can show strength. Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist change to its motion. An object's inertia is related to its mass. Mass is the amount of matter in an object. Matter is anything that has mass and volume (takes up space.) Newton’s first law of motion (aka, The Law of Inertia) states that "an object at rest remains at rest and an object will remain in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force." Free Body Diagrams: a standard diagram that shows all of the forces acting on an object. The object is a box at the center with arrows pointing towards it from the direction of each force. Scientist Isaac Newton was a mathematical genius who invented new types of math related to motion and forces. Evidence suggests that he may have had a form of autism.
 Picture Core Knowledge or Concept Weight (Mass * Acceleration due to gravity) is the measure of the force of gravity upon an object. (i.e. you weigh less on the moon, but your mass is the same.) Friction is the force that one surface exerts upon another. (i.e. sliding on gravel slows you down versus sliding on ice, rolling on wheels, a fluid water slide, or static: not moving). Its force always acts in the opposite direction to motion Friction's strength depends on ​the type of surface (like rough, smooth, sticky, slimy, etc) How hard they are pressed together 4 types: fluid friction: liquids and gasses sliding: when one or both surfaces are moving or rubbing together rolling: when one or both surfaces are spinning static: when neither surface is moving The law of universal gravitation states that the force of gravity acts between all objects (matter) in the universe (everything, everywhere). Gravity is the force that pulls objects towards more massive things (like Earth). Gravity's strength varies by Distance: closer is strongerMass: more mass has more gravity. On Earth's surface, things in freefall accelerate 9.8 m/s/s unless it is slowed by air resistance. Newton’s Second Law of Motion states that the net force of an object is equal to the net product of it acceleration and its mass. (i.e. a speeding car has more impact than a blowing leaf crashing into a wall) (Force = Mass * Acceleration) Scientist Albert Einstein was a mathematical genius who related time, space, gravity, and mass in his theories of special relativity (Time and space) and general relativity (gravity, space, and mass.) He also defined the speed of light as a universal speed limit and related energy and matter with e=mc2.
 Picture Core Knowledge or Concept Momentum ( M ass * V elocity), Is related to kinetic energy or moving energy. The states that total momentum of any group of objects remains the same unless an outside force acts on the object. If pool balls collide, the combined momentum is the same after they hit. Motion can be transfered from one object to the other. exception: In a car crash, some of the energy is lost into the change of shape. This is why cars are built to crumple. Newton’s third law of motion states that if one object exerts a force on another object, the second object exerts a force of equal strength in the opposite direction on the first object. action = reaction or if you push me, I push you back. When the rocket blast pushes down, the rocket reacts by going up. Scientists Robert Goddard, the father of rocketry in the early 20th century Wernher von Braun, developed the Atlas rocket for the United States. His rockets were powerful enough for NASA's space program and, along with competing Soviet scientists created intercontinental ballistic missiles that could have destroyed the world. Technology Pugh Charts: are used to check if a design meets the specifications (requirements) of a design. Usually used to compare designs (columns) against each specification (rows.)
 Picture Core Knowledge or Concept Energy Energy is the ability to do work or cause a change. The unit of energy is the Joule. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. It depends on mass and velocity. (i.e. a book falling) Potential energy is energy that is stored and ready to be released. (i.e. a book on a table ready to fall) Springs store elastic potential energyHeight stores gravitational potential energy. Potential Energy = Weight * Height(weight is in newtons, height in meters.) formula for gravity (Earth's = 9.8 m/s2) Forms of energy and their sources mechanical (motion): wind, water, machines, animals thermal (heat): buring, the sun, electric heaters, chemical reactions chemical (molecular bonds): chemical reactions, molecules electrical (electrons): lightning, chemical reactions,  solar cells,  generators electromagnetic(light, radio waves, x-rays, etc.): the sun, lights, heaters nuclear (radiation). atoms breaking down or being made Work is the transfer of energy between objects. (Like a force that makes an object move.) work = force * distance (force is in newtons, distance in meters.) The unit of work is the Joule.​ Energy conversion occurs when one type (form) of energy is changed into another. (i.e. electricity into sound, motion into heat, etc.) The law of conservation of energy states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Einstein's theory e=mc2 says that energy (e) can be converted to matter (m) and vice versa (and back again). Scientist Enrico Fermi, the father of American Nuclear Physics at the University of Chicago. His work is continued in the Manhattan project, Argonne National Labs, and the Fermilab Accelerator in Batavia.
 Picture Core Knowledge or Concept Pressure  is a force spread over an area.  Pressure (Force ÷ Area) Pascal (Pa)" the unit of pressure in Newtons/meter2 (i.e. the pointy end of a stick hurts more than the side of the stick) Fluid a substance whose shape can easily change. Fluids are usually liquids or gasses. In fluids, the particles (molecules and atoms) are not locked together and can move past each other. Pressure increases with depth and decrease at higher elevations or altitudes This is because of the weight of the fluid above. In space, there is no pressure. It is a vacuum. Pressure in fluids are transmitted or distributed in all directions. Because the fluids in our body have the same pressure, we are not crushed by air pressure or water pressure in the ocean. Pascal’s principle states that when a force is applied to a confined fluid (liquid) an increase in pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid. Force pump is a device that causes a fluid to move from one place to another by increasing the pressure in the fluid. Lungs and hearts works because fluids move from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure. Because blood does not leak out of the system, it is called a closed system. A hydraulic system multiplies a force by applying the force to a smaller surface area.  It usually uses oil or water, fluids that do not lose force when compressed. Systems that use air, like air brakes or air nailers are called pneumatic systems. (i.e. your foot on a brake pedal can stop a truck) Pistons or plungers are the devices at the ends of some hydraulic systems that transmit force outside of the system hydro- Greek root for water Density is the amount of matter in a given space. Buoyant force: The upward force exerted by a fluid on a submerged object that is less dense.The property of an object to float or sink is called buoyancy. Archimedes' Principle states that the upward buoyant force exerted on a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid the body displaces. Scientists Blaise Pascal,(1623-1662) French mathemetician and religious philosopher whose interest in the mercury barometer led him to climb mountains and experiment with pressure. He invented mechanical adding machines that predicted computers. Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782) Swiss mathematician whosework with moving fluids is the basis of today's work with airplanes, submarines, water systems, and hydraulics.
 Picture Core Knowledge or Concept Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual particles (i.e. two units of temperature are degrees Fahrenheit (°F) and degrees Celsius (°C). absolute zero is the lowest temperature possible. atoms stop moving. Thermal energy is the total energy of all of the particles in a system. Heat is thermal energy moving from warmer objects to cooler objects. Heat is transferred (moved) in three ways: a.     Conduction - the process of heat being transferred from one particle of matter to another without the movement of matter itself. (i.e. by touch) b.     Convection - the movement that transfers heat by the movement of currents within a fluid. (i.e. a fire’s heat rises & warms the air above, cool air falls) c.      Radiation - the transfer of energy by the electromagnetic waves. (i.e. heat from a fire warms your hands and face from a distance) Conductors are materials that conduct energy well. (i.e. metal pot handles, copper wire) Insulators are materials that do not conduct energy well. (i.e. pot holders, plastic coating on wires) The states of matter are: solid : lowest energy- has a definite volume and a definite shape. (i.e. spilled rocks look the same as they do in a glass) liquid: more energy- has a definite volume, but takes any shape. gas: even more more energy- fills any volume and shape plasma: most energy- Atoms lose electrons and act like a gas.
 Picture Core Knowledge or Concept An atom is the smallest particle of a substance (matter). There are 2 regions of an atom The nucleus in the tiny center of the atom is made of protons and neutrons. The is the outside area made up of mostly empty space. Protons are tiny positively charged particles. Neutrons are neutral (no charge). Atomic mass is the total number of an atom’s protons and neutrons. Atomic number is the number of an atom’s protons only. This number is used to classify types of atoms. Electrons are negatively charged particles that orbit around the nucleus in the electron cloud. They are much smaller than protons and neutrons. In a neutral atom, there are the same number of electrons as protons. Valence electrons react with other atoms. Thry have the most energy and are the furthest from the nucleus. A pure substance is stuff made of only one kind of matter with definite properties.  (i.e. sugar, salt, iron, & copper) Some pure substances, called elements, cannot be broken down into other substances by any chemical means.  (i.e. iron, copper, gold, carbon, & chlorine) The periodic table an arrangement of the chemical elements by increasing atomic number, which displays the elements so that one may see trends in their properties. Elements in the same group (column) react similarly. Group1 and 2 metals react strongly with group 7 elements. Group 8 gasses are unreactive. Scientist MarieCurie (ne: Sklodowska): the first person to receive 2 Nobel Prizes for her work in radioactive particle physics (1903) and chemistry (1911). Her work paved the way for modern nuclear technologies in  medicine, power,  and the military.
 Picture Core Knowledge or Concept A molecule is a group of atoms that are joined together and act as a single unit. (i.e. a water molecule is made of 2 hydrogen atoms tied to 1 oxygen atom: H2O.) A chemical formula (molecular formula) is the recipe for what is in a molecule. The element symbol Letter goes before the Number of atoms, so H20 has 2 hydrogen & 1oxygen. A structural formula is a way to show how molecules are put together. Lines represent bonds between atoms. Atoms are held together in chemical bonds by sharing, gaining, or losing electrons. A compound is a substance made of two or more elements. A mixture is two or more substances found together. Solution is a very well-mixed mixture of two substances that keep their properties. (i.e. sugar water vs. salt water) A solvent is a liquid and solute is a solidlike a powder. Characteristic  properties are qualities of a substance that never change and can be used to identify the substance. They can be physical properties and chemical properties. Physical properties can be any property used to characterize matter and energy and their interactions.  They can be observable using instruments or the five senses. (i.e. crystal shape, color, texture, hardness, bends or breaks, density, resistance to water and fire, conductivity or heat or electricity, melting/boiling points) Density of a substance is its mass per unit volume. (mass / volume) Physical changes change the form of a substance, but not its identity.  (i.e. crushing, folding, freezing, boiling, dissolving, mixing, cutting, twisting ) Scientist  Craig Venter and Francis Collins decoded the DNA molecule of several life forms, including humans.DNA is one of the largest molecules of all and holds the instructions for how to build the molecules of living things.
 Picture Core Knowledge or Concept Chemical properties are how a substance reacts and changes with other substances under which conditions. In chemical changes / reactions one or more substances combine or break apart to form new substances. (i.e. burned wood becomes charcoal, water vapor, and carbon dioxide gas) Chemical equations show the reactants and products of a reaction on either side of an arrow showing the direction of the reaction. 2 H2 + O2  --> 2 H20 Reactants are the chemicals before the reaction (right side 2 H2 + O2) Products are the chemicals after the reaction. (left side 2 H20 ) conservation of mass: matter is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction. A balanced chemical equation shows this by having the same number of atoms on both sides of the equation. Bonds store energy that is related to thermal energy. Exothermic reactions give off heat making substances warmer. (In instant heat packs, iron powder (Fe) rusts when it is exposed to oxygen. Endothermic reactions absorb heat making substances cooler. (In instant cold packs, ammonium nitrate NH4NO3reacts with H2O and uses thermal energy to break bondsmaking it colder.) Reaction rates are the speed that a substance enters into a chemical reaction. Reactions can be controlled using 1.    concentration: how much chemical is present (the flask limits oxygen) 2.    surface area: how much is exposed to the reaction (powder versus block) 3.    temperature: thermal energy often speeds reactions 4.    catalysts/enzymes: molecules that help the reaction 5.    inhibitors: molecules that slow reactions Scientist Hans Adolf Krebs- Nobel Prize winner- discovered how energy molecules are made in living cells in the citric acid or Krebs cycle.
 Picture Core Knowledge or Concept A wave is a disturbance that transfers energy from place to place. (i.e. jump rope) Two categories of waves are: a. Mechanical Waves- require a medium to travel through. (i.e. water waves in a pond) b. Electromagnetic Waves- do not need a medium. (i.e. light and radio waves.) A medium is a material through which a mechanical wave travels. Two types of waves are: a. Transverse - waves that move the medium at right angles to the direction in which the waves are traveling. The top is a crest and the bottom is a trough. (i.e. like a snake wiggling side to side in an ‘S’ shape) b. Longitudinal - waves move the particles of the medium parallel (the long way) to the direction that the waves are traveling. Compression is close together and rarefaction is spread out. (i.e. like a slinky getting squeezed and then opening up) Properties of waves are: a. Amplitude is the maximum distance the particles of a medium move away from their resting point as a wave passes through the medium. b. Wavelength is the distance between two corresponding parts of a wave. c. Frequency is the number of complete waves that pass a given point in a certain amount of time. d. speed is the distance travelled divided by time.  speed = wavelength x frequency (= distance / time) Interference between waves that meet. When two waves pass through each other they can add together to make a larger amplitude or cancel each another out Scientist Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) was a French mathematician who worked on how frequencies are related by developing the Fourier Transform/ Technology Sonograms use sound waves that pass through the medium of the body to make pictures.
 Picture Core Knowledge or Concept Sound is a disturbance that travels through a medium as a longitudinal wave. Sound begins with a vibration. Sound waves can travel in solids, liquids and gasses. An echo is when sound waves reflect off of an object Sound waves spread out and can diffract or bend around objects. The loudness of a sound depends on the amplitude or energy of its wave. Intensity is the measure of the energy of a sound wave over an area. The unit of loudness is the decibel dB. Distance can make sounds less loud. As sound waves spread out, they have less energy per unit of area, so they sound softer. The pitch of a sound depends on its frequency. The unit of frequency is the Hertz or Hz. Humans can ususally hear from 20Hz to 20,000 Hz. The speed of sound is different in different materials. Sound generally goes slower in gasses and faster in solids. Speed can change with elasticity, density, and temperature. A sonic boom is when something goes faster than mach 1, the speed of sound. Doppler effect moving sound sources can make frequencies appear higher or lower by compressing or spreading out waves. Scientist / Engineers Robert Moog manufactured early synthesizers by creating sound modules that could generate or change sound waves. Technology Synthesizers are musical instruments that simulate or create the sounds of instruments by changing the shapes of sound waves.